VPN Explained: How Does VPN Work and Why Would You Use It?

A VPN makes way for the creation of a more secure connection between the internet and a host. Whenever a host connects to the internet using a VPN, all of the data traffic is sent via a virtual tunnel that is encrypted. Below are the advantages of using a VPN:

  • Anonymous usage of the internet and its provided platforms can be done. Here, the IP location and address will never become visible to any other user.
  • Increased safety when using the internet is upheld as the encrypted tunnel helps in keeping the hackers and cybercriminals away. Also, the device will not be a prone to any attack.
  • More freedom, when using the internet, is promoted by using different IP addresses. With these, there are more given chances to access any website or online service that would be blocked otherwise.

Moving forward, here are some of the process that makes a VPN work

How Does VPN Works?

Whenever a reliable provider of is found, their software can be downloaded and installed to a particular device such as mobile phones, laptops, tablets, and more. Then, you can now choose your preferred settings of security and proceed to set up an effective connection with the desired server of VPN. If there is a recorded establishment of connection, the following will happen to the data and device:

  1. The software of your computer’s VPN will encrypt the data traffic and then send it to the server through a secured connection.
  2. The encrypted computer data will be decrypted by the server of a VPN.
  3. The server of the VPN will send data to the internet and receive a response. This response is meant for the user.
  4. There will be an encryption process of traffic to be done again by the VPN-server, and it will be sent back to you.
  5. The given VPN-software in the device you use will decrypt data. In this way, you can understand and use it properly and effectively.

Your data traffic will be encrypted by the VPN connection that will make it more difficult for other parties and hackers to access and intercept it. The improved connection security will also provide the users with increased anonymity, for it reroutes the internet traffic through the external VPN server. When you are surfing the internet using the IP address of the server, the real IP address of your data and device will remain protected and hidden.

Normally, both your identity and location can be exposed through its IP address. This is because of its uniqueness to the internet connection. However, if you use a different one or the assigned to the VPN server, any of your online actions will not be traceable. This will then allow you to surf the web incognito. Another thing, the VPN application works in the background of any device such as a tablet, computer, or smartphone. The internet can be accessed normally, and any different movement will not be noticed, even those that are beyond online restrictions.

Reasons to Use VPN

  1. Anonymity on the Internet

The first reason why a VPN must be used is that it can hide the real locations and IP addresses. Using a VPN connection, an IP address will be used that is from the VPN you had connected to your device. Through this, the IP address of your data and device will remain anonymous. Also, other parties and websites will not be able to trace any of your online actions, especially the identity and location with an IP address. The only thing that can be visible is the anonymous VPN you use that originally has nothing to make up with you. Simply, using a VPN can help you surf the web while being hidden.


  1. Protection against governments and hackers

The other reason to use a VPN is that it will help you build protection against the government and hackers. Since people are becoming more aware of vulnerable internet usage, a secured VPN connection is a must-have. In this way, an account’s data and details can be protected against harm from hackers and even the government’s trespassing to one’s privacy. This will also help the account to remain hidden and be kept away from any harm.

That is all for how a VPN works as well as why you need to use it. Learn more and share this to other people. Stay protected with a VPN!…

What Do Most Sharks Eat?

Sharks are the most feared animals that live underwater. With its large bodies, extreme hunting skills, deadly jaws, and powerful bites, no other sea animal can stand before it. Other than that, there are also reported cases of shark attacks that killed and injured thousands of humans every year in the seas. However, what do sharks eat most of the time? Is it always meat? Can they eat plants? Well, we’re here to find it out. So, let’s start now!

Sharks may have known as powerful predators, but due to its variety of types and species, there are differences when it comes to the food they eat. Also, sharks’ food can depend on the place they live in. Whatever food supply is dominant in that area, the sharks will consume it correspondingly. Another thing, the diet of sharks can adapt to survive. There are shark species that prefer particular prey, but when there is a lack of supply, they learn to adjust and eat whatever is available. Simply, they aren’t picky when it comes to the food they eat.

Moreover, there are two groups of a shark’s diet:


The first one is carnivorous. A carnivorous shark’s diet includes crustaceans, mollusks, and fishes. The large species can consume other mammals, including sea lions, seals, porpoises, and dolphins. Large fish species like the tuna and mackerel can also be part of a shark’s diet. Other than that, seabirds can also be consumed by sharks as they have the capability to hunt and jump off the water.

There are also some shark species that are overelaborate when it comes to food. The hammerhead sharks, for example, are fed exclusively on rays, and tiger sharks prefer turtles. The blue sharks, on the other hand, loves to consume fancy squids as their meal.


If there are carnivore sharks, there also exists the planktivore ones. These sharks are fed by planktons, which are marine species that live by group and can be found mostly on water’s surface. Aside from sharks, whales also consider planktons as the primary part of their diet. It may be little for these huge mouths, yet it provides the needed nutrition and taste that these animals look for. Another thing, it may be shocking, yet huge animals like sharks prefer to consume planktons more than meat.

In terms of the feeding strategy, the shark uses the process of suctioning water in its mouth and then filtrate the food through its long filaments that look like whale beards. Sharks catch planktons and filter it through its long filaments and swallow some quantity. more In terms of the excess water that came in with the planktons, sharks get it out through spitting it on the hole on top of its body.

Indeed, sharks have different eating and food choices, and it depends on their capability, adaptation, and environment. Now that you’re already aware of this information, may you use it to further study about the life and feeding behavior of this marine animal? In this way, more discoveries can be known that might be a great help for future researches.…

Top 5 Most Popular Karaoke Singing Apps for Android & iOS

Karaoke lets you sing plenty of pre-recorded songs and record your vocals in sync with the music. The screen displays the lyrics of the song to maintain constant flow while singing.

What if you’re on a tight budget or you have no karaoke? The best thing you can do is to a karaoke app on your device. These apps allow you to sing your favorite songs and record voice on the original music background. Not only that, you can also share your recorded performance with your loved ones or fans on social networks.

If you have no idea which karaoke singing app will suit your needs, you can go for the most popular options below:

  1. Yokee Karaoke

Yokee Karaoke app allows you and your friends to sing together for free. There are millions of songs you can choose from the library. Apart from music, this app displays the lyrics of the song so that you can easily go with the flow of each song. It uses a special video and audio effects to enhance your performance.

If you love sharing your karaoke performances, you can do with the app’s community of other karaoke lovers. With over 100 million users, you can meet other people who the same passion as you. In addition, you can pick various songs from different themes, genres, and languages.

Another interesting thing about Yokee is that it is easy to use. The process for picking a song, recording it as well as sharing your favorite performances are very straightforward. If you prefer using a karaoke singing app that is fun and easy to use, this one is worth the try.

  1. StarMaker

Do you want to feel like a pop star? With more than 50 million users across the world, StarMaker is one of the most popular karaoke apps today. You can sing free karaoke songs and invite your friend to perform with you.

From the huge international catalog, you can choose your favorite songs. The lyrics of the songs are displayed on the screen. In case you want to edit your recordings and add voice effects. To gain likes and followers, you can share the recordings on the app and different social platforms like Instagram, Facebook, and Twitter.

In case you want to share a certain part of the song, the app allows you to do that. You can also try posting texts, images, or videos on the app. As it focuses on global music, you can easily access the songs that you like. For an incredible international music catalog, give StarMaker a try.

  1. The Voice Sing Karaoke

The Voice is one of the most preferred karaoke apps for Android and iOS of many karaoke lovers. This app comes with a wonderful collection of pre-recorded songs. It allows you to add many different audio effects to your performance. You can also share it on social media.

Unlike other karaoke singing app, The Voice lets you unlock more songs from popular performing artists if you sing more songs. You can search any of your favorite tracks and record your voice with ease.

Interestingly, The Voice releases new tracks daily. This means that you can stay up-to-date with the new songs of your favorite artists. It also comes with a great community of other singers and karaoke lovers like you. From there, you can interact with other members, like and comment.

  1. Voloco

When it comes to the karaoke app with unique features, you can go for Voloco. This karaoke singing app is compatible with services both from Android and iOS. It allows you to combine vocoding and automatic tuning.

Voloco comes with six different vocal effects that you can use to correct your voice. You can choose from these vocal effects according to your taste. Using any of the vocal effects, you can achieve the quality of voice you want based on the note and genre of the music.

Additionally, this app allows you to sing a song and record your performance with ease. Using your camera apps, you can make a music selfie video. You can save and share your performance with your family and friends.

  1. SingStar Mic

How would you like turning your smartphone into an amazing karaoke machine? The SingStar Mic will help you feel like a rockstar or a pop artist with a few taps on your device.

Using this karaoke app, you can share to the world your singing prowess or find which of your friends has incredible vocal skills. One will definitely find their favorite songs given tons of songs to choose from. Besides, you do not need to hire a vocal coach as it comes with audio effects that will improve the quality of your voice in an instant.

Final Thoughts

Do let yourself be left behind. Try any of the …

The best web hosting for small businesses

Several internet marketing experts had already highlighted the importance of the best web hosting for small businesses in journals. At present, you can find a stunning number of web hosting plans online to boost the performance of the site in search page results. Many of the newies may be in a confused state to pick the right and the best web hosting solutions to get the best result. Do you own any business site or planning to start one with the right website hosting plan? If yes, it is good to do a little bit of comparison in the online search first. Today, you can make use of an online directory list to select the plans for doing business.

Best web hosting for small businesses

Choosing the best website hosting plan holds a great role in getting optimum results in businesses. The allowance of maximum space for data management is one of the main benefits of choosing paid and the best hosting plan. Small space for the data input may not be sufficient to promote the profits of the company. Hence the requirement of large space volume for data management is essential to get the best results. The selection of the best web mejores hosting plan assures unlimited storage options without any additional fee. The majority of the free hosting plans are available online with limited space for data management on the site. For the best results, it is suggested to opt for the paid hosting plans to get the best results.


Security of the website administration is one of the main features that newbies in the internet marketing field need to consider while doing their businesses. Problems like hacking, phishing, and content copying are commonly heard in the present news. You can alleviate this trouble by introducing security measures with the help of the right web hosting plan. Small to large businesses had already made used the best web hosting plans to achieve a prominent position in the market place.

Does the loading speed of a web page matter?

As per studies, delayed loading of the site or low performance of the site due to junk files is one of the main causes that give rise to business loss. You can reduce this trouble by the introduction of the best web hosting plan. The loading of junk files in the site, especially video files, and audio files can act as the main cause of delayed performance. This condition can be reversed by selecting the best hosting plans for business sites. The selection of the best hosting plan is found to be very effective to save both the money and the time of the site owners. Frequent errors due to malware attacks on the site can be reduced by the action of the best plan. This feature in turn can save the money and time of the site owners.

Generally, the paid web hosting plans are available with the required number of email options and domain names to help the site owners in businesses. Complete control over data management is an essential feature needed to promote the businesses in search page results. The selection of the best hosting plans can help the owner to get complete control over data management. It helps the site owners to provide the content as per the need of the site.…

The Real Downside of Osteoporosis: Treatments and Side Effects of the Medications

The following article talks about the various side effects and treatment options available to osteoporosis patients.

What are the medications that are being given to millions of men and women globally to deal with osteoporosis? Mainly, there are 3: alendronate, Boniva® and Actonel®. There are additional ones that are given intravenously but this article will focus on the three most common.

A Few Osteoporosis Medications

Certain osteoporosis medicines are categorized as bisphosphonates, which is an component being utilized for several years in plant food, soaps, dishwashing detergents and heavy-duty lubricating substance. Alendronate, the most popular of the three bisphosphonates, is Merck’s second best selling medicine. It has exceeded four billion in gross sales and millions of orders are scripted annually.

Furthermore, Merck has already reserved an enormous amount of money for a defense monetary fund for cases associated with the side effects that, for several individuals, are extremely debilitating.

Actonel® is the second most booming medicine in this class and coincidentally, Proctor and Gamble, who produces Actonel, also manufactures laundry detergent and toothpaste. Boniva® is a given once a month.

The bisphosphonates in the medications work by lessening the pace at which a person’s bones decrease their density. The bones collapse and then construct back up, in their normal rhythm of development. When people are younger their bones develop more rapidly than they crumble, and of course as people age this system slackens.

Side Effects of Common Osteoporosis Drugs

The most frequent side effects of the bisphosphonates include gastrointestinal issues. They include responses like:

  • Cramping
  • Diarrhea
  • Redness of the esophagus
  • Ulcer of the esophagus
  • Pyrosis
  • Trouble swallowing (dysphagia)

The list carries on with a host of additional signs that include dental issues, blood coagulation issues, fretfulness, anemia, joint issues, muscle infliction, and vision decline. These harmful side effects are permanent and can be associated with osteonecrosis, which is the death of bone due to inadequate blood supply.

This disease is extremely painful and may produce ulcerations, infection, open bone and sores.

The trouble with all the side effects is that additional medicines are then given to treat them. People begin using an acid reducing agent to treat the gastrointestinal issues, an anti-inflammatory to treat the inflammation issues, and a pain reducer to care for the joint and muscle issues.

Is this actually the best way to care for a disease which until a view years ago was not even categorized as a disease? The Mayo Clinic declared that thirty-seven percent of females older than fifty don’t meet the real criteria of osteoporosis and are somehow mistakenly diagnosed.

Ordering for the School Year: Maximizing the Supply Budget

That seems to vanish very quickly. After ordering pencils, pencils, pencils, and more pencils, there is nothing left for all of the projects that the students enjoy so much. And, after ordering some paper and glue stick for 125 students over ten months, there will probably not be anything left for high-interest technological gadgets. Unless the teacher is willing to have a daily struggle over students bringing a pencil to class, meaning the pencils will be taking up much of the budget, there is going to have to some creativity, sharing, and give and take involved in the ordering process.

Most teachers have about $250.00-$500.00 to spend on supplies for the next school year. This figure does not include books or computers, but it does include items like bulletin board decorations (which no longer seem to be reusable, since over the course of the year students feel they can write on them and rip them down when the teacher is absent), paper, pens, colored pencils, poster board, videos or DVDs, machines on which to present the videos or DVDs, overhead transparencies, markers (dry erase, overhead, and washable), erasers, chalk, portfolio folders, file folders, printer toner. $500.00 may look like a lot of money at first, but ten boxes of 144 pencils costs approximately $120.00. If a teacher in middle school sees 125 students a week, and 50 pencils are “borrowed” a week, then in around 30 weeks, there will be no more pencils, and that is figuring low, because the student is not going to bring that pencil to class all week.

The average teacher puts about $500 of his/her own money into the classroom per year; that is according to a 2002 report. That is a personal choice, by a dedicated teacher who wants to add a little extra to whatever is going on in the classroom, whether it is for rewards, supplies, or trip fare, whatever. Some teachers bring supplies that are at home to the classroom, such as older televisions, educational games their own kids have outgrown, and other items, such as computer disks or software, electric fans in places where none are supplied. Some teachers will not spend a dime in the classroom or bring anything in either. This is also a choice.

Teachers need to look into sharing with each other. Perhaps if four teachers each have $25.00 left over, that is $100.00, enough for a Math Safari that can be shared (and devise a schedule for students to use it). Share televisions and DVD players. Bring the antiquated digital camera from home to liven up lessons. Also, look into what DVD’s are available at the public library and determine which teachers are teaching the same topic at that time. Arrange for a mass showing of the DVD. That is another $20.00 saved! Have students work in groups, rather than individually, to save on art supplies, and also work in conjunction with the art teacher so skills can be incorporated or not repeated.

Teachers tend to work in isolation and this should not be. This year, when ordering, collaborate. Someone may lend you the $1400.00 digital microscope you need for just one class period.

Buying Promotional Pens for Business Marketing: How to Source Custom Printed Personalized Pens and Pencils

There are hundreds of different products commonly used as promotional gifts from mugs to baseball hats or mousemats to calendars. Personalized pens or pencils are one of the most cost effective items to consider for business marketing as they can be purchased for as little as 8 cents when bought in bulk.

Printed pens are available to buy online at a variety of price points and most styles of pen can be customized, in multiple colors if necessary, with specific company logos, website details and telephone number, a sure way to remind customers who to call first.

Promotional Printed Pens

While cheap printed pens are attractive from a cost angle, it’s important to remember that cheap can often look nasty; the pen may be too thin for large hands or it may leak due to poor quality refills leaving a poor but lasting impression. It may therefore be better to spend a few extra cents on a better quality pen which feels good to use and, being bigger and wider, will allow more space for a larger logo or additional company information.

Types of Personalized Pens

Imprinted pens fall into the following broad categories:

  • Ballpoint pens – available in twist, click and stick form, they are usually the cheapest and offer the widest range of style choice in multiple colors. Refills usually last the longest so pens have a longer marketing life.
  • Rollerballs – offer better, smoother writing quality but are more expensive often as they come with a cap.
  • Gel pens – refills do not have longevity but they are excellent writing instruments and will make a lasting impression.
  • Fine liners and fibretips – these are not as popular as printing is more expensive on their metal outers.
  • Fountain pens – expensive but a good option for executive corporate gifts. They can also be used as part of a personalized boxed gift set with a matching ballpoint pen and pencil.

Simple wooden pencils are a cost effective and eco-friendly alternative to plastic pens.

Alternative Promotional Gifts

Markers, highlighters and sticky notes may not be considered by many promotional product buyers but offer a good alternative to pens and pencils, especially as costs are now far lower due to their popularity. Highlighters and sticky notes also offer a greater surface area to place promotional messages or memorable logos.

Cost of Promotional Pens and Pencils

Small wooden pencils start from around 8 cents when bought in bulk quantities of 5000+ from online stores like PENSRUS; full size pencils cost upwards of 11 cents each. Cheap stick pens start at 16 cents per piece; better quality ball points like the Springster (see picture below) cost from 43 cents dependent on quantity; expect to pay from $1.34 per piece for branded products like a good quality Paper Mate® ballpoint pen.

Pen and pencil gift sets cost upwards of $7.50 with boxed executive pen sets costing upwards of $25. It is best to compare quality and price of options on offer from several different websites before placing an order.

Marketing Pens

Promotional pens can be a great marketing tool as well as being practical gifts for corporate clients. Simply use them as cheap giveaways at stores and trade fairs or invest in higher quality items for personalized gifts.

How Nicolas Winding Refn Gambled on Pusher II and III

A look at director Nicolas Winding Refn’s sequels to his cult hit ‘Pusher.’


Having found himself in debt after directing Fear X (2003) Nicolas Winding Refn made two back-to-back sequels to his breakthrough movie Pusher (1996) to get out of financial trouble. Refn felt Fear X was his “best and most ambitious film” to date and was wounded by its perceived failure. The documentary Gambler (Phie Ambo 2006) covers Refn’s struggle with bankruptcy and how making more Pusher movies was the only real choice for Refn. The original ended with Frank’s (Kim Bodnia) fate unresolved as he found himself out of cash and being hunted down by Serbian drug dealer Milo (Zlatko Bulic) and his associates. Pusher II: With Blood on My Hands focuses on Frank’s former friend Tonny (Mads Mikkelsen) as he tries to get his life back on track after spending time in prison.

Pusher II: With Blood on my Hands

Hapless skinhead Tonny might have RESPECT tattooed on the back of his head, but nobody respects him, especially not Smeden (Leif Sylvester), his estranged father who regards Tonny as a clown and wants nothing much to do with him. Smeden owns a garage and operates a car thief ring so Tonny steals a Ferrari to impress his father, but is too daft to realise the opportunistic theft of such an expensive item attracts too much heat.


Tonny then teams up with the equally hopeless Kurt ‘the Cunt’ to conduct the worst, and quite possibly the funniest drug deal in history. Unfortunately this transaction is with Milo, who may see the funny side of Kurt flushing his stash down the toilet, but still demands to be paid. There is a vague hint at Frank’s fate with Milo asking Tonny if he’s seen his old friend around recently suggesting he may have escaped Copenhagen. Tonny is also having trouble with his ex, the mother of his child who hates him for impregnating her and treats their child as a burden.

Winding Refn likes to put his characters in situations where they are cornered and finding a way out seems impossible. Using the same low-key gritty style as the original, Refn mixes social realism with moments of transcendence. Though unremittingly bleak, Pusher II: With Blood on My Hands is also very funny. Mikkelsen is able to make Tonny sympathetic despite his criminal tendencies and the various humiliations heaped upon him. It all leads to a tender, moving finale with Tonny finally gaining a measure of respect and perhaps a new start.

Pusher III: I Am the Angel of Death

With the success of Pusher II assured Winding Refn was able to make another sequel, this time focusing on Milo as he deals with drug addiction, Albanian gangsters, and his daughter’s birthday party. Milo gets a shipment of ecstasy instead of heroin and reluctantly agrees to sell it. There is a new generation of dealers on Copenhagen’s streets and Milo is a little out of his time. He has no idea how to deal ecstasy, or even that what he is trying to sell is actually confectionary. Now in debt to the Albanians Milo has to work for them and finds himself under the kind of pressure he’s used to putting other people under.

Though not as good as the earlier films Pusher III: I Am the Angel of Death still holds the attention. Much of this is down to Zlatko Bulic’s performance. Milo is no longer as fearsome and must turn to his enforcer Radavan (Slavko Labovi?) from the first film. In Pusher Radavan was the kind of guy who would tear your kneecaps off, but there is a remarkable scene where this terrifying enforcer sweetly explains to Frank how he dreams of opening his own restaurant. Now older and bespectacled, Radavan has realised his dream of being a restaurateur and he is wary of returning to his former life.

Pusher Spin-Offs

Both sequels did well enough at the Danish box-office and through international sales to get Winding Refn back in the black. After a brief detour into British television directing an episode of ITV’s Miss Marple series Winding Refn made Bronson (2008) and reunited with Mads Mikkelsen starring Viking movie Valhalla Rising (2009). Pusher has inspired a couple of British remakes; a low-budget version set in Leicester amongst the Hindi community directed by Assad Raja, and a forthcoming film by Luis Prieto starring Richard Coyle as Frank. Zlatko Bulic will apparently be reprising his role as Milo for the latter.

Donaghy Gambling not a Conspiracy: The NBA ref who allegedly bet is a big deal but not big business

The rude revelation that referee Tim Donaghy may have tinkered with the outcome of games will add to a long list of conspiracy theories that the NBA is not entirely on the level. It shouldn’t.

While Donaghy’s alleged actions were unconscionable and could leave a permanent black eye on the league, they are nickel-and-dime stuff compared to the 1985 lottery drawing and a handful of postseason games that have historically raised the eyebrows of even the most ardent NBA fans.

Donaghy may have lined the pockets of gamblers with tens of thousands of dollars; those other incidents would have had a financial impact of millions and perhaps billions.

In fact, a friend who worked at the NBA at the time believed that Game Six of the 2002 Western Conference finals – the one where the Lakers shot a million free throws in the fourth quarter and Kobe Bryant got away with a suspension-worthy shot to the face of a member of the Sacramento Kings – was fixed.

His reasoning was that the league’s TV contracts were up for renewal that summer and that the NBA could not afford to have the Kings and the New Jersey Nets – a pair of unknowns to the casual fan base which drives viewership – establishing the ratings for the Finals, which would be used as the negotiating point for the networks interested in televising the league.

The numbers make it hard to argue with his thought process. Lakers-76ers in 2001, a series that featured two big markets, Shaquille O’Neal, Kobe Bryant and lightning-rod MVP Allen Iverson, had an overall 12.1 rating. Spurs-Nets in 2003, which had no large markets or larger-than-life personalities, did just a 6.5, the lowest-rated Finals before this year.

It’s easy to imagine the NBA wanting the Lakers and the second-largest market in the Finals. But it’s almost unfathomable to imagine the league fixing Game Six, then leaving Game Seven – scheduled for Arco Arena, the toughest home court in the league – in the hands of the Lakers.

Kings-Lakers is one of a number of games that have come under scrutiny. Game Seven of the 1993 Western Conference finals between the Seattle SuperSonics and Phoenix Suns, Game Four of the 1997 Eastern Conference finals between the New York Knicks and Miami Heat and Game Seven of the 2001 Eastern Conference finals between the Milwaukee Bucks and Philadelphia 76ers are all on the list.

But those contests have three distinct differences between anything Donaghy may have been involved in. For one, at the root of any conspiracy theorist’s reasoning is that the league itself – not a “rogue individual,” as Donaghy was called by NBA commissioner David Stern – was behind the machinations.

If the NBA wanted to ensure a playoff game’s outcome – not the point spread, not the over/under, but the outcome – one referee or player would not be enough. It would need to have multiple members of a team of players or referees in the mix.

Secondly, there is no proof that Donaghy tinkered with playoff games, which are watched by a much larger national audience than regular-season games. A Hornets-Bobcats game in January, viewed only in the local markets and by hoops junkies on League Pass, would be much easier to manipulate.

And finally, what a handful of bettors with inside information could collect on an NBA game is chicken feed compared to the financial windfalls of advertising revenue from TV contracts. The eight-year extension signed last month with broadcast partners Disney and Turner is for $7.44 billion.

If you want to excoriate Donaghy for destroying the most sacred element of the NBA, go right ahead. But don’t include him in your conspiracy theory arguments. His alleged influence is not on that scale.

Fibroids: Leiomyomas – Benign Muscle Tumors

Fibroids are benign muscle tumors. They are the most common gynecological pathology. They are treatable, although it is not always necessary.

Fibroids are diagnosed in 20 to 25% of women over the age of 30. They are generally non-cancerous muscle tumors of the uterus that may or may not produce signs and symptoms. Malignancy may occur in .2 to 1% of cases. Some women have small fibroids while others may develop fibroids that are as big as grapefruit. Pregnancy often causes fibroids to grow, a process that may be reversed after childbirth.

Types of Fibroids

Fibroids, also called leiomyomas, are classified into one of three categories, although a fibroid may become large enough to be classified in two or all of these categories.


Submucosal fibroids growth within the endometrial cavity, which is the inner cavity of the uterus, or impinge on the endometrium, the inner lining of the uterus that is shed during menstruation.


Intramural fibroids grow in the muscular, middle layer of the uterus. They do not touch the endometrium or the outer layer of the uterus.


Subserosal fibroids occur in the outer, or subserosal layer of the uterus. They can cause bumps on the surface of the uterus or become pedunculated, becoming a growth that hangs off of the outside of the uterus.

Signs and Symptoms

When fibroids become large enough, any type of fibroid can cause pelvic pressure, pain, cramping, or urinary urgency and frequency. Submucosal fibroids can cause irregular bleeding ranging from mild spotting between periods to continuous, heavy bleeding. Fibroids growing on the backside of the uterus may cause back pain. Uterine position can affect symptoms as well. Women with uteruses that tip towards the back may experience back pain more so than women with uteruses that tip forward.

Diagnosis and Treatment

Pelvic ultrasound is used to diagnose fibroids. Due to the varying degree of size and density among fibroids, abdominal and transvaginal ultrasound are used. The size, location, and fibroid classification is determined. If fibroids are too dense for adequate ultrasound analysis, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may be used for further diagnosis.

Fibroids that do not cause significant problems are often closely watched with subsequent ultrasounds. Symptomatic fibroids may be surgically removed from the uterus, a procedure called a myomectomy. Hysterectomy, or removal of the uterus, may be another option when the uterus is mostly fibrotic. Uterine artery embolization (UAE) is a process in which the arteries supplying the fibroids with blood are blocked, causing the fibroids to shrink.